When the surgical procedure requires the involvement of the operating microscope or high-powered loupe magnification, it is called as microsurgery. The microvascular techniques are used to anastomose small vessels and nerves and reconstructing the defective organs of the body. Here, the smaller nerves typically 1 mm in diameter are under consideration that allows the transfer of tissues from one part of the body to another followed by reattachment to the detached parts.
Microsurgery is one of the most viable tools to achieve complex reconstruction successfully by dealing with free tissue transfer from distant sites of the body. Isolated transfers, functioning free muscle transfers, composite tissue transfer, toe transplantation, vascularized bone grafts are some of the common examples of free tissues transfer performed in microsurgery. Besides, neural grafts and vein grafts also come under the same category.
The procedure can be utilized in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, gynecological surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology podiatric surgery and pediatric surgery. Generally, microsurgery is done to accomplish complex reconstructive surgical problems when more accessible options like skin grafting, primary closure, healing by secondary intention or local flap transfer are not feasible.